Blind / Visual Impairment
Students with visual impairments are those students who are blind or have low vision. The regulatory definition of visual impairment is "... an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance." This ranges from students who are totally blind or with minimal light perception, to students with functional vision, although less than the norm. For some students, visual impairment is their only disability, while others have one or more additional disabilities that will affect, to varying degrees, their learning and development.
The effect of a visual impairment on a student's development depends on the severity, type of loss, age at which the condition appears, and overall functioning level of the student. Less than 1% of all students in Pennsylvania are visually impaired. Students with visual impairments have complex and unique educational needs, which often require highly specialized services, equipment, and materials.
Vision impairment creates a filter that affects the student's ability to receive and give information, as well as to interact. Since vision is the primary sense upon which most traditional education strategies are based, these strategies need to be modified to reflect the student's visual, auditory, and tactual capabilities. Understanding the functional and educational effects of the visual impairment is essential to adjusting education strategies, as well as to the instruction and assessment processes.
Deaf / Hard of Hearing
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA '97) defines two terms related to hearing acuity: Deafness and Hearing Impairment. According to IDEA '97,
- Deafness means a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that it adversely affects a child's educational performance.
- Hearing impairment means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness.
Developmental delay is a disability category used in Pennsylvania for infants, toddlers and preschool age children. While all children grow and change at their own rate, some children may experience delays in their development that can be cause for concern. Young children with developmental delays typically have skills below their same age peers in the ability to think and learn, move, understand, talk and express needs, relate to others, eat, dress, take care of themselves, or solve problems.
Developmental Delay and Preschool Age Children: PA Chapter 14 Regulations define developmental delay as follows: "a child who is less than the age of beginners and at least three years of age is considered to have a developmental delay when one of the following exists:
- The child's score, on a developmental assessment device, on an assessment instrument that yields a score in months, indicates that the child is delayed by 25% of the child's chronological age in one or more developmental areas.
- The child is delayed in one or more of the developmental areas, as documented by test performance of 1.5 standard deviations below the mean on standardized tests."
Developmental Delay and Infants/Toddlers: PA Regulations Early Intervention Services Chapter 4226 define developmental delay as follows:
- Delay of 25% of the child's chronological age in one or more developmental areas or
- Developmental delay in one or more of the developmental areas as documented by1.5 standard deviations below the mean on standardized test
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA '97) defines emotional disturbance as
"A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree, and that adversely affects a student's educational performance:
- An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors
- An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances
- A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression
- A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems"
The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to students who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance. Students with emotional disturbances may struggle in school with reading, social skills, and self-management.
Mental retardation means "significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive skills, that is manifested during the developmental period, and that adversely affects a student's educational performance." Adaptive skills that are assessed in the person's typical environment (e.g., school, home) and across all aspects of his or her life are those daily living skills needed to live, work, and play in the community. They include communication, self-care, home living, social skills, leisure, health and safety, self-direction, functional academics (reading, writing, basic math), community living, and work. A student with limits in intellectual functioning who does not have limits in adaptive skill areas may not be diagnosed as having mental retardation.
Multiple disabilities means "concomitant impairments such as mental retardation plus blindness, mental retardation plus orthopedic impairment, etc., the combination of which creates educational needs that cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments." The term does not include deaf-blindness.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA '97) defines Orthopedic Impairment as "a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by congenital anomaly (e.g., clubfoot, absence of some member, etc.), impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc.), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures)."
Students with orthopedic impairments must follow the general education curriculum. However, some students may have an additional disability, or challenging medical interventions, that may require additional supports with learning to read, write, and do math.
Other Health Impairment
Other health impairments means "having limited strength, vitality or alertness including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli that results in limited alertness in the educational environment, and that adversely affects a child's educational performance. This disability is typically due to chronic or acute health problems, such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, and sickle cell anemia."
Students with other health impairments may struggle in school with reading, writing, and math. Because of health issues, the student may have sporadic or poor school attendance and may fatigue easily during the school day.
Specific Learning Disability
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA '97) defines Specific Learning Disability (SLD) as "a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include
learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage."
A team may determine that a student has a specific learning disability if:
- The student does not achieve commensurate with his or her age and ability levels in one or more of the areas listed below, when provided with learning experiences appropriate for the student's age and ability levels, and
- The team finds that a student has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in one or more of the following areas:
- Oral expression
- Listening comprehension
- Written expression
- Basic reading skill
- Reading comprehension
- Mathematics calculation
- Mathematics reasoning
The team may not identify a student as having a specific learning disability if the severe discrepancy between ability and achievement is primarily the result of:
- A visual, hearing, or motor impairment
- Mental retardation
- Emotional disturbance
- Environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage
Speech and Language Impairment
Speech or Language Impairment refers to a student's developmental or acquired difficulties in understanding or using speech and language, particularly as they relate to his or her participation and progress in school. Speech or language impairments are often evident in the following skill areas:
- Fluency or stuttering
- Comprehension and expression of language in oral, written, graphic and manual modalities in the areas of phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatic aspects of communication
- Language processing, including pre-literacy and language-based literacy, including phonological awareness and sound segmenting and blending skills
- Cognitive aspects of communication, such as problems in memory and problem solving
- Establishing augmentative and alternative communication, including developing, selecting, and recommending such systems and devices
Traumatic Brain Injury
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA '97) defines Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) as "an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term applies to open and closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas such as: cognition, language, memory, attention, reasoning, abstract thinking, judgment, problem-solving, sensory, perceptual, motor abilities, psychosocial behavior, physical functions, information processing, speech."
Students who have suffered a traumatic brain injury usually enroll in school after having had intense clinical intervention. The educational planning should start in the clinical environment and seamlessly continue through the entire support process to reintegrate the student into the local education setting. When the student returns to the local school, the curricular demands and instruction strategies must be identified and tailored to each specific student, depending on the type and severity of injury.